The TreeZero News June 18-24, 2018

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

How to save 60% more CO2 in the fresh supply chain– Reusable containers for fruit and vegetables result in no less than 60% lower CO2 emissions than cardboard packaging. https://bit.ly/2ynoNbG

10 Tips for an Energy-Efficient Home – According to This is Money, it is possible to cut between more than $100 and $250 a year off fuel bills without losing warmth or comfort – simply by using energy efficiently and effectively.  https://bit.ly/2Kd0jn3

Hytch Makes Carpooling Pay in Tennessee – Hytch pays people to carpool. Since launching in February of this year, the company has logged an impressive 2 million miles of shared rides in the state of Tennessee and signed up more than 6,000 participants. Hytch initially launched with Nissan as a sponsor. Nissan and their staffing agency signed up to offer anyone in the state of Tennessee a penny a mile if they teamed up with someone for a ride. They offer five cents a mile during certain commute hours. https://bit.ly/2IohhNu

Biz Group Vows $1T Renewables Investment in 12 Years – Nonprofit group, The American Council on Renewable Energy, or ACORE, includes Amazon, BlackRock, Deloitte, Google, IBM, Morgan Stanley, NRG Energy, Consolidated Edison, Salt River Project, Wells Fargo, universities and advocacy and research organizations, among more than 100 members. https://bit.ly/2K2SIvr

This Florida Utility Has Become a Global Leader in Renewables Investment – NextEra’s recent success demolishes claims that the switch to renewables can lead to a cleaner environment at the cost of higher electric bills. The company says that its principal subsidiary, Florida Light & Power, bills its air conditioning-hungry customers 25 percent lessthan the national utility bill average – and has the lowest bills overall in the Sunshine State.  https://bit.ly/2InjbhC

Flooding from sea level rise threatens over 300,000 US coastal homes – Sea level rise driven by climate change is set to pose an existential crisis to many US coastal communities, with new research finding that as many as 311,000 homes face being flooded every two weeks within the next 30 years. https://bit.ly/2tfiPUo

Looking to the long term, UPS boosts fleet with CNG trucks – UPS announced it’s investing $130 million in five new compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations and 730 CNG vehicles, a move that will help reduce CO2 emissions and boost the company’s renewable natural gas use. https://bit.ly/2tpisqy

Climate Change to Become ‘Greatest Pressure on Biodiversity’ by 2070 https://bit.ly/2toNij7

 

DEFORESTATION

DNA Database to thwart Deforestation – Project is a collaboration between the Norwegian government and the United States Forest Service’s international program. Initially, the project will focus on building a database for the bigleaf maple tree on the west coast. While the experts are gathered to create the DNA Database, it relies on volunteers and citizen scientists as well. And the best part is, you can also help gather samples for DNA testing. All you have to do is complete an online training course on how to collect samples and pass the test. https://bit.ly/2MUhiMP

Deforestation for fashion: The cost of rayon – According to TextileWorld, 5.2 million tons of rayon and related cellulose-based fabrics were produced in 2015.   Patagonia explains that the chemical processing is a concern: “The solvent used for this process is carbon disulfide, a toxic chemical that is a known human reproductive hazard. It can endanger factory workers and pollute the environment via air emissions and wastewater. The recovery of this solvent in most viscose factories is around 50%, which means that the other half goes into the environment.” According to non-profit Rainforest Action Network’s Out of Fashion campaign, 120 million trees are cut down annually to make our clothes.   https://bit.ly/2MQ3kvr

Plant trees in refugee camps to stop forest loss and conflict, U.N. says – https://reut.rs/2togQ1f

Of forests and floods: Devastatingly high water raises clear-cut questions https://bit.ly/2I2T6Eo

Certification ‘making no difference’ to supply chain labour abuses – https://bit.ly/2JPjwPu

A Renewed View of Some of the World’s Oldest Trees – After a three-year restoration project, the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias in Yosemite National Park has reopened, with less asphalt and more concern for the health of the trees. https://nyti.ms/2JLvolr

Opinion – We Need to Talk About How Logging in the Southern U.S. is Harming Local Residents – Deforestation in the American South is four times that of South America’s rainforests — and it’s disproportionately hurting low-income people and people of color. https://bit.ly/2wwH1qf

 

RECYCLING

EACH 2018 NIKE NATIONAL TEAM KIT IS MADE WITH AT LEAST 12 RECYCLED PLASTIC BOTTLES – For both Nike’s Fast Fit Vaporknit kits (worn by BrasilCroatiaEnglandNigeriaPoland and Portugal) and Nike’s Match jerseys (worn by AustraliaSaudi Arabia and South Korea), the process involves melting down 12 or 18 recycled plastic drinking bottles, respectively, to produce a fine yarn. See picture below. https://news.nike.com/news/sustainability-football-kits

UK Recycle Now Campaign 2018-19 – Included in this collection is a host of adaptable campaign assets which have been designed for partners to start using from Recycle Week onwards. Recycle Week 2018- 24 September to 30 September 2018  https://bit.ly/2hiBZGR

 Video – Turning beer and food waste into electricity  https://bit.ly/2tsbAsx

 UK to have nationwide food waste collections – https://bit.ly/2tB8jaz

 U of W student starts organic waste pickup service – https://bit.ly/2KdNf0N

 Dr. Gupta: After all my years of reporting, this haunts me – I promise you that our children and grandchildren will rightly hold us accountable for this tragic misuse of food that has led to a plundering of our land, an accumulation of greenhouse gases and the loss of precious water used to grow and produce that wasted food.  https://cnn.it/2tr4EMp

Investors Demand Nestle, Pepsi and Others Cut Plastic Use – https://bloom.bg/2tkQpt2

Video – It’s not you. Date labels on food make no sense. Food labels don’t mean what you think they mean. https://bit.ly/2KbC1tx

 ShareWaste is an app that uses a digital map to connect individuals with food scraps to nearby neighbors who have a compost system like a heap or a bin. HTTPS://BIT.LY/2K2KN12

New Study Finds Recycling Bags Better than Carts at Reducing Contamination and Program Costs – York University study, “Thinking Beyond the Box” https://bit.ly/2tzB9YH

New technology to reduce food waste at grocery retailers – Apeel Sciences has developed a coating, made from leftover plant skins and stems, that it claims could more than double the shelf life of the fruit.  https://bit.ly/2ly9vb4

 

WATER STEWARDSHIP

 Coral reefs ‘will be overwhelmed by rising oceans’ –  https://bit.ly/2MR2bUc

 USAID and Coca-Cola work with Ohio State’s Global Water Institute to improve water access in Tanzania.   https://bit.ly/2MPGMuA

 This Tech Makes It Easy To Conserve Water In Your Home – Lōtik created a high tech water monitoring solution that acts like a Fitbit for water pipes. The device collects useful details like flow patterns which can help pinpoint problems like disastrous water damage lurking behind seemingly innocent walls.   https://bit.ly/2yBitO4

Deadly Tensions Rise as India’s Water Supply Runs Dangerously Low – A government report released on Thursday said that India was experiencing the worst water crisis in its history, threatening millions of lives and livelihoods. Some 600 million Indians, about half the population, face high to extreme water scarcity conditions, with about 200,000 dying every year from inadequate access to safe water, according to the report. By 2030, it said, the country’s demand for water is likely to be twice the available supply. https://nyti.ms/2liNb50

 How to Extract Clean Water from the Ground: We’re No Longer Stumped! – In an article in Advanced Sustainable Systems, Professor Liangbing Hu and co-workers from the University of Maryland, USA, develop carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a means to efficiently extract ground water via the roots of tree stumps by means of vaporizing the water under sunlight. https://bit.ly/2HXPovC

 Why Bogotá Should Worry About Its Water – Colombia’s capital Bogotá relies on a unique ecosystem called páramosfor its water. The tropical plants and moss in the páramo act like a sponge, trapping moisture from the foggy air, storing it in the soil during the dry season, and releasing it gradually. HTTPS://BIT.LY/2JZB4SE

National temperature and precipitation maps are available from February 2001 to May 2018. https://bit.ly/2tlnBzJ

 

SUSTAINABILITY

CBS Documentary – Expedition Antarctica – A father and son journey to save the planet – Robert and Barney Swan.  https://www.cbsnews.com/video/expedition-antarctica/

Morgan Stanley Survey Finds Sustainable Investing Momentum High Among Asset Owners – For more information, please see Sustainable Signals: Asset Owners Embrace Sustainability and reporthttps://bit.ly/2JXGZKr

 Harvard Business Review – How Marketers Can Connect Profit and Purpose – https://bit.ly/2tjpjBF

 Asics plans to cut 55% of its supply chain carbon emissions –  https://bit.ly/2I0WHm1

 Soil Health Educational Resources Now Online –  https://bit.ly/2MdkP7I

Corporate Knights seeks nominations for 4th annual Top 30 under 30 Sustainability Leaders list – Accepting nominations until Wednesday, July 18, 2018.  http://www.corporateknights.com/us/30under30/

 Mars leads call for advertisers to donate percentage of ad spend to conservation projects – The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s ‘The Lion’s Share’ fund was set up with the ambition of raising $100m a year within three years, with the money being invested in a range of wildlife conservation and animal welfare programs. “Animals are in 20% of all advertisements we see. Yet, they do not always receive the support they deserve. Until now,” said the fund’s special ambassador Sir David Attenborough. https://bit.ly/2KdM01v

 Majorities See Government Efforts to Protect the Environment as Insufficient – HTTPS://PEWRSR.CH/2ICQOOQ

 Hermes launches carbon ESG tool – The $60 billion global manager will launch a tool to calculate a fund’s carbon performance and carbon risk as a part of its ESG toolkit to help fund managers make better decisions about investments.   https://bit.ly/2IkmjuF

 Honey Bees Swarm to Cox Campus – Bee Downtown partners with businesses in cities to collaboratively rebuild healthy honey bee populations by installing and maintaining honey bee hives on corporate campuses. In June, Bee Downtown delivered and installed four honey bee hives to Cox’s Atlanta campus. https://bit.ly/2IiQCBV

 Measurabl, Green Sports Alliance Announce Partnership to Elevate Sustainability in Sports Culture – Measurabl is creating a first of its kind sustainability benchmark that accurately compares sports stadiums around the world, allowing them to evaluate individual performance relative to their peers. https://www.greenbuildermedia.com/green-builder-magazine-may-june-2018

Investors Are Right to Consider ESG Risks, Says New Report By Corporate Governance Association – https://bit.ly/2K651qH

 Sustainability Career Report – CSR/Sustainability Jobs Embedded in all Departments – Recent research identified that 87% of CSR/Sustainability professionals are embedded throughout different departments with multiple portfolios. https://bit.ly/2MgzaQP

Arbor Day: A Celebration and Appreciation of Trees

Let’s celebrate trees this Arbor Day. Trees do so much for us.  They provide shade, reduce energy costs and increase our property values. Along our streets, they reduce storm water runoff that can carry pollutants to our waterways. Throughout our communities, they improve the mental and respiratory health, break up heat islands, create jobs and boost the economy.

In forests, they restore critical wildlife habitat, provide opportunities for recreation and maintain healthy watersheds to protect drinking water resources.  And no matter where they’re planted, trees are working hard to combat climate change, clean the air and shield us from ultra-violet rays.  Trees filter pollutants out of our air and water. They absorb CO2, removing and storing the carbon while releasing oxygen back into the air.  Trees provide food for humans, birds and wildlife, alike.  One apple tree can provide 15 to 20 bushels of fruit a year.

Trees provide immeasurable beauty and serenity that feed the human soul. At times, they can take our breath away.  This Friday, April 28th, is Arbor Day.  Take notice. Observe. Celebrate and be grateful for the trees around you.  TreeZero invites you to plant a tree and make a positive impact in your community.

Visit us at TreeZero.  Learn more about how choosing our tree free paper helps the environment and your business or organization to be more sustainable.

Ready to go tree free? Email us and we’ll get you started.

Celebrating International Day of Forests: A Special Round-Up on Deforestation

March 21 is International Day of Forests – The theme of the 2017 International Day of Forests celebration is “Forests and Energy” to increase awareness of forest-energy interconnections and strengthen engagement between forest and energy practitioners and policymakers. Individuals, groups, governments and businesses are encouraged to organize and partake in awareness raising and activities regarding the importance of preserving and protecting forests such as tree planting efforts.

Teenager Is on Track to Plant a Trillion TreesNational Geographic’s Laura Parker reports on a teenager and his environmental group.  Starting his project as a nine-year-old, Felix Finkbeiner aims to restore the world’s forests. Finkbeiner is 19—and Plant-for-the-Planet, the environmental group he founded, together with the UN’s Billion Tree campaign, has planted more than 14 billion trees in more than 130 nations. The group has also pushed the planting goal upward to one trillion trees—150 for every person on the Earth.

The organization also prompted the first scientific, full-scale global tree count, which is now aiding NASA in an ongoing study of forests’ abilities to store carbon dioxide and their potential to better protect the Earth. In many ways, Finkbeiner has done more than any other activist to recruit youth to the climate change movement. Plant-for-the-Planet now has an army of 55,000 “climate justice ambassadors,” who have trained in one-day workshops to become climate activists in their home communities. Most of them are between the ages nine and 12.

The Earth Has Lungs. Watch Them Breathe – By Robert Krulwich – What a difference a leaf makes! Well, not one leaf. We have 3.1 trillion trees on our planet—that’s 422 trees per person. If we count all the leaves on all those trees and take a look at what they do collectively to the air around us, the effect—and I do not exaggerate—is stunning. I’ve got a video from NASA. When you see it, I think your jaw is going to drop—just a little. It tracks the flow of carbon dioxide across the planet over 12 months, starting in January. Most of the action takes place in the Northern Hemisphere because that’s where most of the land is, and so that’s where most of the trees are. The biggest temperate forests are in Canada, Siberia, and Scandinavia.

That’s what the NASA video shows us: We can see the Green Machine turning on, then, a few months later, turning off. When it’s on, when the leaves are out, those ugly, poisonous-looking swirls of orange and red vanish from the sky. The machine works. And this happens every year. It’s as though the Earth itself has lungs.  But for all of its lung power, CO2 concentrations keep building in our atmosphere. We’re apparently pouring so much CO2 into the sky that the trees can’t keep up. Twelve thousand years ago, the Yale study says, there were twice as many trees on Earth. Apparently, we need their help. We need more trees. We really do.

The Nearest Forest is Farther Away Than You Thought – By Kastalia Medrano – New analysis of American deforestation offers a surprising stat: The average distance to the nearest forest increased by nearly 14 percent in the last decade. To put it another way, the total forest cover lost is comparable in size to the state of Maine.  The forest cover is also vanishing at a rate more than a full order of magnitude greater than we previously thought. A pair of researchers made the discovery by analyzing forest attrition — the complete removal of forest patches, including small ones — across the continental United States.

Two Redwood Trees

Redwood Trees Providing Canopy

The western part of the country especially was shown to have vastly accelerated rates of attrition.  A study detailing the research was published recently in the journal PLOS ONE. The focus for this study was on four primary drivers: commercial logging, agriculture, urbanization pressure, and forest fires.

More Companies Reporting Progress toward Deforestation-free Supply Chains Recent years have witnessed a groundswell of private sector commitments to reducing deforestation linked to the agricultural commodities that underpin vast corporate supply chains. A growing number of companies have been sharing their progress toward those pledges, according to the latest annual report from Forest Trends’ Supply Change initiative. The report, Supply Change: Tracking Corporate Commitments to Deforestation-free Supply Chains, 2017, looks at 447 companies that have made 760 commitments to curb forest destruction in supply chains linked to the “big four” agricultural commodities: palm, soy, timber & pulp, and cattle.

“Corporate commitments to deforestation-free supply chains continue to gain momentum as stakeholders demand more sustainable businesses and products. As companies move to address these demands – and the ever-growing threats to their supply chains, including climate change – we’re learning that meeting these goals is easier said than done,” said Stephen Donofrio, Senior Advisor for Supply Change. “It requires a reformulation of an entire complex system – from suppliers to retailers, among many other non-corporate actors.” The report, which examines 718 companies that Supply Change has identified as “exposed” to the big four commodities, include:  Commitments on palm and timber & pulp continue to lead the way, thanks in large part to more well-established certification programs and scrutiny around palm oil-driven deforestation. Commitment rates remain considerably lower for soy and cattle, which is troubling given their outsized contribution to tropical forest loss.

HSBC overhauls deforestation policy after Greenpeace investigation – HSBC has launched a new zero-deforestation policy after a Greenpeace investigation found a link between the banking corporation and organizations destroying Indonesia’s forests and peatland.  The new policy requires its customers to commit to protecting natural forest and peat by 30 June 2017 by publishing their own forest protection policies. It also says the bank will no longer provide funding to companies involved in any kind of deforestation or peatland clearance, breaking its links with destructive palm oil corporations. More than 200,000 people around the world signed a petition to put pressure on HSBC thanks to a Greenpeace campaign that also encouraged people to send emails directly to the bank’s CEO and protest outside high street branches.

Prince of Wales brokers pact to end cocoa deforestation – By Terry Slavin. The world’s biggest buyers, producers and retailers in the cocoa supply chain met in London recently to sign a statement of collective intent to end deforestation in the global cocoa supply chain. The agreement, the first of its kind covering the global cocoa supply chain, was brokered by the Prince of Wales’s International Sustainability Unit and signed by 12 of the biggest companies in the supply chain, including Cargill, Olam, Ferrero, The Hershey Company; Mars, Mondelēz International and Nestlé. The 12 companies hope to unveil a joint framework at COP 23 in Bonn in November. Crucially, ministers and senior government representatives of the two leading cocoa producing countries, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, as well as France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK attended.

The Prince of Wales told participants: “It is clear that the private sector has a critically important part to play in saving our remaining forests, particularly through tackling the deforestation that has too often, alas, been associated with global commodity supply chains. The commitments made in this regard over recent years by a number of the world’s major companies, including some of those represented in this room, are hugely encouraging. But we all know that delivery on such commitments can be challenging, to put it mildly, and that the list of commodities covered remains far from complete.

And until now, one of the important omissions from that list was cocoa, which is why today’s announcement is so very heartening.” The statement commits the companies to work with public, private, and civil society partners to develop a common vision and joint framework to end deforestation and forest degradation in the cocoa sector by 2018. Among other commitments, the companies will work with producer country governments to “professionalize and economically empower farmers and their families, and deepen support for inclusive and participatory development of cocoa-growing communities, with a strong focus on gender empowerment.”

Exclusive Look Into How Rare Elephants’ Forests Are Disappearing – By Laurel Neme – A high-stakes game playing out in a remote biodiversity hot spot pits the palm oil industry against the ecological integrity of the last place on Earth where critically endangered Sumatran elephants, tigers, rhinos, and orangutans live side by side. At issue is destruction of Indonesia’s Leuser Ecosystem—a UNESCO World Heritage site at the northern end of Sumatra—principally by forest clearing for oil palm plantations. Roughly the size of Massachusetts, the Leuser’s 10,000 square miles straddle two provinces, with 85 percent in Aceh and the rest in North Sumatra.

Sumatran Elephant

This little one gets a nudge as they cross a river in the Leuser Ecosystem.
PHOTOGRAPH BY PAUL HILTON FOR RAN

The region encompasses Sumatra’s largest intact rain forest and a mix of habitats, from high alpine meadows to peat swamps. Palm oil—the basis of products such as cosmetics and shampoos, processed foods and biodiesel—is versatile and has a long shelf life.  But oil palm plantations gobble up forest—and not always legally. A new report by the NGO Rainforest Action Network details the illegal razing of lowland forest, critical habitat for 22 Sumatran elephants, by oil palm grower PT Agra Bumi Niaga (PT ABN). The clearing likely also affects tigers and orangutans that depend on this forest. The Rainforest Action Network is a San Francisco-based NGO with a 30-year history of campaigns targeting major corporate brands implicated in forest destruction, human rights abuses, and climate change pollution.

Successful Forest Protection in DRC Hinges on Community Participation – By John C. Cannon The tens of millions of people in the Democratic Republic of Congo who depend on the forest must be considered to keep the world’s second largest rainforest intact.  The Democratic Republic of Congo’s extensive forests seem like a bright spot in an otherwise-troubled country. With forests covering an area larger than Colombia, DRC has managed to sidestep the surge in losses that forest-rich countries in South America, Southeast Asia and elsewhere in Africa have suffered. It has become an important country partner in the UN’s REDD+ program. Short for “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries,” REDD+ promises DRC hundreds of millions of dollars for environmental and development work, coming from the governments of Norway, Germany, France, the U.K., and the EU.

In exchange, the country’s leadership has agreed to preserve the country’s stockpile of carbon tucked away in the vegetation of its forests, estimated to be around 22 billion metric tons (48.5 trillion pounds).  The goal now is to maintain DRC’s status as a high-forest, low-deforestation country, while proving to the continent and the world that a strategy as global as REDD+ can work. REDD+ has potential to slow the emissions from forest destruction and provide poor countries with funds for development, but as research in DRC and elsewhere is proving, it will only do that if it’s implemented properly.

The solution is far from one-size-fits-all, researchers say, and it will depend on the earnest commitment of local communities. For DRC, as the light of economic and political stability flickers on the horizon, the question is more basic. The country’s forests have survived decades of dysfunction, conflict and failed governance.  Now, they stand on the leading edge of a global climate solution. They’re attracting the attention of donor countries and at the same time international corporations looking for new places to develop while also bringing the promise of economic prosperity. Will they survive this ‘success’?

Drought and forest loss cause vicious circle in the Amazon – If dry seasons intensify with man-made climate change, the risk for self-amplified forest loss increases even more and could put the Amazon rainforest further at risk, an international team of scientists found. Despite a trend of boosting forest areas around the globe, the rate of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest increased in 2016 for the fourth consecutive year.  Researchers at the German Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) found the Amazon rainforest could be exposed to higher risks of dieback if dry seasons intensify and rainfall decreases.

This could lead to a vicious dieback circle, they said in a study published in Nature Communications. “The Amazon rainforest is one of the tipping elements in the Earth system,” said lead-author Delphine Clara Zemp, who conducted the study at PIK. “We already know that on the one hand, reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, and on the other hand, forest loss can intensify regional droughts,” she said. “So more droughts can lead to less forest leading to more droughts and so on.

Yet the consequences of this feedback between the plants on the ground and the atmosphere above them so far was not clear.” The researchers found the close relationship between deforestation and drought could put the Amazon further at risk. When it rains, trees absorb water through their roots and then release it back to the atmosphere. Tropical forests produce most of the water they need themselves: they pump moisture which then rains back to them.

deforestation amazan

Yet logging and warmer air – due to greenhouse gas emissions – reduce precipitations and hinder the moisture transport from one forest area to the other, affecting even remote areas. “Then happens what we call the ‘cascading forest loss,'” said co-author Anja Rammig from the Technical University of Munich, who is currently working as a guest scientist at Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. A fifth of the world’s oxygen is produced by the Amazon rainforest, says the conservation group Cool Earth.

Small farmers play big role in felling Peru rainforest: satellite maps – By Chris ArsenaultDeforestation in the Peruvian Amazon has risen this century – destroying an area of rainforest 14 times larger than Los Angeles – with small farmers behind most of the cutting, according to a new analysis of satellite maps. Small farmers account for about 80 percent of Peru’s forest loss, the Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project (MAAP), a Washington, D.C.-based research group, said on Wednesday. “One of the big findings of this report is that deforestation is not driven by sexier issues such as large-scale oil palm (plantations) or dams, but widespread small-scale agriculture,” said Matt Finer, MAAP’s director. Small producers clearing forests for farms or cattle grazing along with logging roads and illegal gold mining have caused Peru to lose 1,800,000 hectares of Amazon rainforest since 2001 and the trend is steadily increasing, the analysis said.

Cameroon to restore 12 million hectares of Congo Basin rainforest – Cameroon has committed to restoring over 12 million hectares of deforested and degraded land by 2030 as part of the Bonn Challenge initiative, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has announced. The initiative is a global effort to restore 150 million hectares by 2020, and more than double that to 350 million by 2030. The pledge is the biggest to date in the Congo Basin, home to the world’s second-largest tropical rain forest, and brings the 2020 goal into range with a total of 148 million hectares pledged. Cameroon’s pledge will also contribute to the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100), which aims to bring 100 million hectares under restoration by 2030 through the Bonn Challenge and concurrent programs.